The following frequently asked questions are designed to give you a non-technical introduction to the Green Space Index and help you to explore its results. If you would like to learn more we have also produced a set of Technical Notes which explain in greater detail how the Green Space Index has been compiled.

We would welcome any comment on the Green Space Index by email to


What is the Green Space Index?
The Green Space Index is Fields in Trust's annual barometer of publicly accessible local park and green space provision. When we launched the Green Space Index in 2019 it was the first such measure that had been created to take stock of the quantity of local park provision against the population of Great Britain. In May 2023 we released the fifth version of the Index, updated with the latest data.

Home Nation GSI Score (where 1 is minimum standard of provision) Provision of green space (ha.) Provision of green space per person (sqm) Population not within ten-minute walking access of a green space Green space legally protected with Fields in Trust (ha.)
England 0.82 164,164 28.51 5,216,357 5.72%
Scotland 1.18 22,531 40.69 532,264 10.21%
Wales 1.03 11,438 36.12 415,788 10.11%


Region GSI Score (where 1 is minimum standard of provision) Provision of green space (ha.) Provision of green space per person (sqm) Population not within ten-minute walking access of a green space Green space legally protected with Fields in Trust (ha.)
East of England 1.04 23,209 36.06 782,310 5.95%
East Midlands 0.86 14,853 30.08 490,402 4.96%
London 0.54 17,412 18.61 172,134 5.88%
North East 0.84 7,816 29.24 303,148 3.10%
North West 0.78 20,080 27.18 524,135 6.23%
South East 0.96 31,609 33.52 1,037,107 4.86%
South West 0.82 16,723 29.03 759,415 9.79%
West Midlands 0.87 18,246 30.21 649,466 5.78%
Yorkshire & Humber 0.72 14,216 25.55 498,241 3.66%


What do the different indicators measure?

  • GSI Score: This is our own unique measure showing whether an area meets a minimum level of park and green space provision, where a score of 1 demonstrates a minimum standard of provision.
  • Provision of green space (ha.): Total park and green space provision within the given area, reported in hectares.
  • Provision of green space per person (sqm): The total green space provision per person within the given area, reported in square metres.
  • Population not within ten-minute walking access of a park or green space: The number of people who do not live within ten-minute walking access of a park or green space.
  • Green space legally protected with Fields in Trust (ha.): Total park and green space provision that is legally protected with Fields in Trust for current and future generations within the given area, reported in hectares.

Why have Fields in Trust produced it?
BBuilding on our Revaluing Parks and Green Spaces research findings in 2018 we developed the Green Space Index to analyse data and provide evidence-led research about the current situation for parks and green spaces and the implications on society We are calling for policy change to ensure parks and green spaces are revalued, not for what they cost to maintain but for the value they contribute to society. We believe that green spaces are good, do good and need to be protected for good.

How often will it be updated?
We update the Green Space Index annually late May/early June.

Has this been done before?
The May 2019 release of the Green Space Index was the first time that publicly accessible local parks and green spaces had been mapped and analysed in this way. We have only been able to analyse data on park and green space provision since the production of a GB-wide Greenspace map by Ordnance Survey. Prior to that there was not a comprehensive dataset nor was there a way to track change over time.

What has changed since last year and why can we not yet draw comparisons?
Each new release of Ordnance Survey’s Green Space product undergoes several changes includes a number of revisions to improve accuracy of the base data, thus we are not able to draw firm conclusions that the changes represent loss or gain of green space due to development despite seeing some changes in our findings.

In order to give a more up to date and accurate picture we have used population projection data for each annual release, whereas the 2019 release used population data from the 2011 Census.

What is likely to change in the future?
We know that parks are at crisis point and the lack of funding and statutory protection are compounding the issues facing our parks. We also know that populations in urban areas will grow and this will negatively impact on the quantity of green space available to communities. We will continue to explore the potential impact of population change on green space provision and access. We update our population data each year in line with the latest projections to ensure the Green Space Index keeps track not just with annual changes in green space but also in population.

Can I use the data in my own project?
Data from the Green Space Index is not yet available as open data but you are welcome to use the findings in your own research and reports with credit to Fields in Trust and a link to the Green Space Index web page. If you have used the Index's findings then we would love to hear how it has benefitted your project - please get in touch by emailing The full data for each LSOA is not currently available to download but can be viewed within the interactive online map.

Can I get involved?
We welcome the input of universities, researchers and others who could help us continue to develop and refine the Green Space Index. We would also love to hear from you if you are interested in a partnership to fund this area of our work. You can also make a donation to support our work more widely.

Exploring the Green Space Index WebApp

What are the geographic areas shown on the WebApp?
We have created a WebApp covering the whole of Great Britain. The data you see on each map is displayed as part of Lower Layer Super Output Areas (LSOAs) in England and Wales and Data Zones (DZs) in Scotland. These are geographical hierarchies designed to improve the reporting of small areas statistics.

How detailed are the layers on the WebApp?
We have produced a WebApp for the whole of Great Britain. The WebApp covers a large geographic area and includes a lot of data so we have tried to make it easy for you to explore and load in your browser.

To aid load times and provide as smooth a user experience as possible we have had to simplify some of the layers, which toggle based on the zoom extent of the map. Full discussion of the types of boundaries we use is available within the Technical Notes.

Mapping green space provision

What are the data sources for the Green Space Index?
In the May 2023 release of the Green Space Index we have used the April 2023 release of Open Greenspace data from Ordnance Survey. If you find any inaccuracies whilst browsing the OS Greenspace product, you can report these using the contact form on the OS website, selecting "Map errors and omissions". We use population projection data provided by Geolytix. Further information on this is available in the Technical Notes.

How do you know the minimum standard of provision?
The Index is predicated on our Guidance for Outdoor Sport and Play which is well-established and respected across the industry having been first released in the 1930s. Our survey found 75% of local authorities adopt this or an equivalent standard. The Guidance gives benchmark standards for parks, playing fields, equipped play and informal green space per 1,000 people.

What is classed as publicly accessible local green space?
Local parks and green spaces which are open to the public for recreational use including parks and gardens, informal recreation spaces, children's playgrounds, formal sports areas such as multi-use games areas (MUGA), tennis courts and playing fields. More detailed discussion on typologies of land included is available within the Technical Notes.

What types of green space aren't included and why?
Before calculating the Green Space Index we make some changes to the data provided by Ordnance Survey, including removal of typologies which aren't included within the scope of our Index, such as national parks, common land, cemeteries and golf courses, as well as the elimination of any overlaps within the data to prevent any double-counting. Full detail on this is available within the Technical Notes.

Why don't you include Northern Ireland?
Ordnance Survey's scope only extends to Great Britain. Northern Ireland is served by a separate mapping agency - Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland - who have not as yet produced any mapping of publicly accessible parks and green spaces. If such data becomes available in the future then we will look to expand the Green Space Index to include Northern Ireland.

What is the GSI Score?
The GSI Score is our unique measure of green space provision. To compile the GSI Score we analyse provision of parks and play per 1,000 people and provision of outdoor sport facilities per 1,000 people against our benchmark guidelines to provide a score where 1 indicates a minimum level of provision is being met. This is just a minimum and of course we would always advocate for a GSI Score higher than 1 to ensure everyone within a community is well served by parks and green spaces.

Why is a ten-minute walk relevant?
A ten-minute walking distance is a well-established measure of an acceptable distance for a resident to be from their nearest park or green space. Calculating where and how many people are not served by a park or green space within a ten-minute walk can offer a useful addition to judging provision levels with overall quantity alone not capturing distribution of green space across communities. Determining who's within a ten-minute walking distance from a green space can be difficult. Calculating this distance can be done in multiple ways, resulting in different values. Buffers around green spaces are used by most organisations, including Natural England, to identify people living within a ten-minute walking distance as the crow flies. In 2023 we have introduced a new approach which utilises the road network and calculates walking distance between postcodes and entrance points to green spaces thereby creating a service area for each green space to better reflect a real-life situation. While the second approach is more accurate, the buffer method is also widely used because it accounts for a greater surrounding area of the green space. We employ both methods to guarantee a more complete analysis.

How do you calculate the results?
We calculate the results in the Green Space Index using the latest GIS software. We are grateful for the support of Esri UK whose ArcGIS Pro and ArcGIS Online platforms we utilise through their non-profit programme.